Systems of Government by Country

Afghanistan Islamic republic Albania republic Algeria republic Semi-presidential systems American Samoa NA Andorra parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d’Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the coprinces’ representatives Angola republic multiparty presidential regime Anguilla NA Antarctica The Antarctic Treaty Antarctic Treaty Summary – the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica; the 32nd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Baltimore, MD, USA in April 2009; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; by May 2009, there were 47 treaty member nations: 28 consultative and 19 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 21 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the years in parentheses indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty and when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are – Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are – Belgium, Brazil (1975/1983), Bulgaria (1978/1998) China (1983/1985), Ecuador (1987/1990), Finland (1984/1989), Germany (1979/1981), India (1983/1983), Italy (1981/1987), Japan, South Korea (1986/1989), Netherlands (1967/1990), Peru (1981/1989), Poland (1961/1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1982/1988), Sweden (1984/1988), Ukraine (1992/2004), Uruguay (1980/1985), and the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are – Austria (1987), Belarus (2006), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1962/1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Monaco (2008), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1962/1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1996), and Venezuela (1999); note – Czechoslovakia acceded to the Treaty in 1962 and separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993; Article 1 – area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 – freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 – free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 – does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 – prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 – includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 – treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 – allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 – frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 – treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 – disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 – deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements – some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include – Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area protection and management and 6) liability arising from environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina Antigua and Barbuda constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm Argentina republic Armenia republic Semi-presidential systems Aruba parliamentary democracy Australia federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Austria federal republic federal parliamentary representative democratic republic Azerbaijan republic Semi-presidential systems Bahamas, The constitutional parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Bahrain constitutional monarchy Bangladesh parliamentary democracy Barbados parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Belarus republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship Belgium federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy Belize parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Benin republic Bermuda parliamentary self-governing territory Bhutan constitutional monarchy Bolivia republic note – the new constitution defines Bolivia as a “Social Unitarian State” Bosnia and Herzegovina emerging federal democratic republic Botswana parliamentary republic Presidential republics with the role of the president and prime minister combined. Brazil federal republic federal presidential representative democratic republic British Virgin Islands NA Brunei constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy) Bulgaria parliamentary democracy Burkina Faso parliamentary republic Semi-presidential systems Burma military regime Burundi republic Cambodia multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy Cameroon republic multiparty presidential regime Canada a parliamentary democracy, a federation, and a constitutional monarchy Cape Verde republic Semi-presidential systems Cayman Islands parliamentary democracy Central African Republic republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Chad republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Chile republic China Communist state Christmas Island NA Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA Colombia republic executive branch dominates government structure Comoros republic Congo, Democratic Republic of the republic Semi-presidential system Congo, Republic of the republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Cook Islands self-governing parliamentary democracy Costa Rica democratic republic Côte d’Ivoire republic multiparty presidential regime established 1960 – note: the government is currently operating under a power-sharing agreement mandated by international mediators Croatia presidential/parliamentary democracy Cuba Communist state Cyprus republic note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot “President” Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (“TRNC”), which is recognized only by Turkey Czech Republic parliamentary representative democratic republic Denmark constitutional monarchy Djibouti republic Semi-presidential system Dominica parliamentary democracy Dominican Republic democratic republic Ecuador republic Egypt republic Semi-presidential systems El Salvador republic Equatorial Guinea republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Eritrea transitional government note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections were scheduled in December 2001, but were postponed indefinitely; currently the sole legal party is the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) Estonia parliamentary republic Ethiopia federal republic Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA Faroe Islands NA Fiji military junta Finland semi-presidential representative democratic republic France republic Semi-presidential systems French Polynesia NA Gabon republic multiparty presidential regime Gambia, The republic Georgia republic Semi-presidential systems Germany federal republic federal parliamentary republic Ghana constitutional democracy Gibraltar NA Greece parliamentary republic Greenland parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy Grenada parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Guam NA Guatemala constitutional democratic republic Guernsey parliamentary democracy Guinea republic Guinea-Bissau republic Guyana republic Semi-presidential systems Haiti republic Semi-presidential systems Holy See (Vatican City) ecclesiastical Honduras democratic constitutional republic Hong Kong limited democracy Hungary parliamentary democracy Iceland constitutional republic India federal republic Indonesia republic Iran theocratic republic Iraq parliamentary democracy Ireland republic, parliamentary democracy Isle of Man parliamentary democracy Israel parliamentary democracy Italy republic Jamaica constitutional parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Japan a parliamentary government with a constitutional monarchy Jersey parliamentary democracy Jordan constitutional monarchy Kazakhstan republic authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch Kenya republic Kiribati republic Presidential republics with the role of the president and prime minister combined. Korea, North Communist state one-man dictatorship Korea, South republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Kosovo republic Kuwait constitutional emirate Kyrgyzstan Provisional government Laos Communist state Latvia parliamentary democracy Lebanon republic Lesotho parliamentary constitutional monarchy Liberia republic Libya Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils in practice, an authoritarian state Liechtenstein constitutional monarchy Lithuania parliamentary democracy Luxembourg constitutional monarchy Macau limited democracy Macedonia [FYROM] parliamentary democracy Madagascar republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Malawi multiparty democracy Malaysia constitutional monarchy note: nominally headed by paramount ruler (commonly referred to as the King) and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls) Maldives republic Mali republic Semi-presidential systems Malta republic Marshall Islands constitutional government in free association with the US the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force in May 2004 Mauritania military junta Mauritius parliamentary democracy Mayotte NA Mexico federal republic Micronesia, Federated States of constitutional government in free association with the US the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986 and the Amended Compact entered into force May 2004 Moldova republic Monaco constitutional monarchy Mongolia parliamentary Semi-presidential systems Montenegro republic Montserrat NA Morocco constitutional monarchy Mozambique republic Semi-presidential systems Namibia republic Semi-presidential systems Nauru republic Presidential republics with the role of the president and prime minister combined. Nepal federal democratic republic Netherlands constitutional monarchy Netherlands Antilles parliamentary New Caledonia NA New Zealand parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Nicaragua republic Niger military junta Nigeria federal republic Niue self-governing parliamentary democracy Norfolk Island NA Northern Mariana Islands commonwealth self-governing with locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature Norway constitutional monarchy Oman monarchy Pakistan federal republic Palau constitutional government in free association with the US the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994 Panama constitutional democracy Papua New Guinea constitutional parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Paraguay constitutional republic Peru constitutional republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Philippines republic Pitcairn Islands NA Poland parliamentary representative democratic republic Portugal republic parliamentary democracy Puerto Rico commonwealth Qatar emirate Romania republic Semi-presidential systems Russia federation federal semi-presidential republic Rwanda republic presidential, multiparty system Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha NA Saint Kitts and Nevis parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Saint Lucia parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA Saint Vincent and the Grenadines parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Samoa parliamentary democracy San Marino republic Sao Tome and Principe republic Semi-presidential systems Saudi Arabia monarchy Senegal republic Semi-presidential systems Serbia republic Seychelles republic Sierra Leone constitutional democracy Singapore parliamentary republic Slovakia parliamentary representative democratic republic Slovenia parliamentary republic Solomon Islands parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Somalia no permanent national government transitional, parliamentary federal government South Africa republic Presidential republics with the role of the president and prime minister combined. Spain parliamentary monarchy Sri Lanka republic Semi-presidential systems Sudan Government of National Unity (GNU) – the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner Suriname constitutional democracy Presidential republics with the role of the president and prime minister combined. Svalbard NA Swaziland monarchy Sweden constitutional monarchy Switzerland formally a confederation but similar in structure to a federal republic multi-party federal parliamentary democratic republic Syria republic under an authoritarian military-dominated regime Taiwan multiparty democracy Semi-presidential systems Tajikistan republic Semi-presidential systems Tanzania republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Thailand constitutional monarchy Timor-Leste republic Togo republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule Presidential systems with a prime minister Tokelau NA Tonga constitutional monarchy Trinidad and Tobago parliamentary democracy Tunisia republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Turkey republican parliamentary democracy Turkmenistan defines itself as a secular democracy and a presidential republic in actuality displays authoritarian presidential rule, with power concentrated within the executive branch Turks and Caicos Islands NA Tuvalu parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm Uganda republic Presidential systems with a prime minister Ukraine republic Semi-presidential systems United Arab Emirates federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates United Kingdom constitutional monarchy and Commonwealth realm United States Constitution-based federal republic strong democratic tradition Uruguay constitutional republic Uzbekistan republic authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch Vanuatu parliamentary republic Venezuela federal republic Vietnam Communist state Virgin Islands NA Wallis and Futuna NA Western Sahara legal status of territory and issue of sovereignty unresolved territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), near Tindouf, Algeria, led by President Mohamed ABDELAZIZ; territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976 when Spain withdrew, with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario’s government-in-exile was seated as an Organization of African Unity (OAU) member in 1984; Morocco between 1980 and 1987 built a fortified sand berm delineating the roughly 80 percent of Western Sahara west of the barrier that currently is controlled by Morocco; guerrilla activities continued sporadically until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented on 6 September 1991 (Security Council Resolution 690) by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) Yemen republic Semi-presidential systems Zambia republic Zimbabwe parliamentary democracy Semi-presidential systems No Results

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